keep

keep
keep
A n
1 (maintenance) pension f ; to pay for one's keep payer une pension ; to work for one's keep travailler pour payer sa pension ; to earn one's keep [person] gagner de quoi vivre ; [factory, branch] fig être viable ;
2 Archit donjon m.
B vtr (prét, pp kept)
1 (cause to remain) to keep sb in hospital/indoors [person] garder qn à l'hôpital/à l'intérieur ; [illness] retenir qn à l'hôpital/à l'intérieur ; to keep sth/sb clean garder qch/qn propre ; to keep sth warm/cool garder qch au chaud/au frais ; to keep sb warm/cool protéger qn du froid/de la chaleur ; to be kept clean/warm/locked rester propre/au chaud/fermé (à clé) ; to keep sb talking/waiting retenir/faire attendre qn ; I won't keep you to your promise tu n'es pas obligé de tenir ta promesse ; to keep an engine/machine running laisser un moteur/une machine en marche ; bronchitis kept him in bed une bronchite l'a obligé à garder le lit ;
2 (detain) retenir ; there's nothing to keep me here (plus) rien ne me retient ici ; don't let me keep you! je ne veux pas vous retenir! ; what kept you? qu'est-ce qui t'a retenu? ; I won't keep you a minute je n'en ai pas pour longtemps ; the police are keeping him for questioning la police le garde à vue pour l'interroger ;
3 (retain) garder, conserver [book, letter, money, receipt] ; garder [job] ; garder [seat, place] (for pour) ; garder, mettre [qch] de côté [ticket, bread] (for pour) ; we keep these glasses for special occasions nous gardons ces verres pour les grandes occasions ; this pullover has kept its colour/shape ce pull-over a gardé sa couleur/forme ;
4 (have and look after) tenir [shop, restaurant] ; avoir [dog, cat] ; élever [sheep, chickens] ;
5 (sustain) to keep sth going entretenir qch [conversation, fire, tradition] ; I'll make you a sandwich to keep you going je te ferai un sandwich pour que tu tiennes le coup ; it was only his work that kept him going sans son travail il n'aurait pas tenu le coup ; have you got enough work to keep you going? avez-vous assez de travail pour vous occuper? ;
6 (store) mettre, ranger ; I keep my money in a safe je mets mon argent dans un coffre-fort ; where do you keep your cups? où rangez-vous vos tasses? ; I keep a spare key in the cupboard j'ai un double de la clé dans le placard ;
7 (have in stock) [shop, shopkeeper] vendre, avoir [brand, product] ;
8 (support financially) faire vivre, entretenir [husband, wife, family] ; entretenir [lover] ; avoir [servant] ; fig it'll keep us in beer ça nous permettra de tenir le coup ;
9 (maintain by writing in) tenir [accounts, list, diary, record] ;
10 (conceal) to keep sth from sb taire or cacher qch à qn ;
11 (prevent) to keep sb from doing empêcher qn de faire ;
12 (observe) tenir [promise] ; garder [secret] ; se rendre à, venir à [appointment, date] ; célébrer [occasion, festival] ; observer [commandments, sabbath, Lent] ;
13 Mus to keep time ou the beat battre la mesure ;
14 (protect) [God] garder, protéger [person] (from de) ; [person] défendre [gate, bridge] ;
15 (maintain) entretenir [car, house] ; well/badly kept bien/mal entretenu.
C vi (prét, pp kept)
1 to keep doing (continue) continuer à or de faire ; (do repeatedly) ne pas arrêter de faire ; to keep going lit continuer ; I don't know how she keeps going! je ne sais pas comment elle tient le coup! ; keep at it! persévérez! ; keep west/straight on continuez vers l'ouest/tout droit ; ‘keep left/right’ ‘tenez votre gauche/droite’ ;
2 (remain) to keep indoors rester à l'intérieur ; to keep out of the rain se protéger de la pluie ; to keep warm/cool se protéger du froid/de la chaleur ; to keep calm rester calme ; to keep silent ou quiet garder le silence ;
3 (stay in good condition) [food] se conserver, se garder ;
4 (wait) [news, business, work] attendre ; I've got something to tell you, it won't keep j'ai quelque chose à te dire, ça ne peut pas attendre ;
5 (in health) ‘how are you keeping?’ ‘comment allez-vous?’ ; she's keeping well elle va bien.
D v refl to keep oneself subvenir à ses propres besoins ; to keep oneself warm/cool se protéger du froid/de la chaleur ; to keep oneself healthy rester en forme ; to keep oneself to oneself ne pas être sociable ; to keep oneself from doing s'empêcher de faire.
E for keeps adv phr pour de bon, pour toujours.
Idioms
to keep in with sb rester en bons termes avec qn ; to try to keep up with the Joneses rivaliser avec ses voisins ; you can't keep a good man down la compétence finit par être reconnue ; ⇒ clear.
Phrasal verbs
keep after :
keep after [sb]
1 (pursue) pourchasser ;
2 (chivvy) harceler.
keep at :
keep at [sb] US harceler, casser les pieds à [person] ;
keep at it persévérer.
keep away :
keep away ne pas s'approcher (from de) ;
keep [sth/sb] away empêcher [qch/qn] de s'approcher, tenir [qch/qn] à distance ; to keep sb away from (prevent from getting close to) empêcher qn de s'approcher de, tenir qn à distance de [person, fire] ; (cause to be absent from) tenir qn éloigné de [family] ; to keep sb away from his work empêcher qn de travailler.
keep back :
keep back rester en arrière, ne pas s'approcher ; keep back! ne vous approchez pas!, n'avancez pas! ; to keep back from sth ne pas s'approcher de qch ;
keep [sth/sb] back, keep back [sth/sb]
1 (prevent from advancing) empêcher [qn] de s'approcher [person, crowd] (from de) ; faire redoubler [pupil, student] ; [barrier, dam] retenir [water] ; he kept his hair back with an elastic band il avait les cheveux retenus en arrière par un élastique ;
2 (retain) garder [money] ; conserver [food, objects] ;
3 (conceal) cacher [information, fact, detail] (from à) ;
4 (prevent from doing) retenir [person].
keep down :
keep down rester allongé ; keep down! ne bougez pas! ;
keep [sth] down, keep down [sth]
1 (cause to remain at a low level) limiter [number, speed, costs, expenditure, inflation] ; limiter l'augmentation de [prices, costs, wages, unemployment] ; maîtriser, juguler [inflation] ; to keep one's weight down surveiller son poids ; keep your voice down! baisse la voix! ; keep the noise down! faites moins de bruit! ;
2 (retain in stomach) garder [food] ;
keep [sb] down
1 GB Sch (cause to repeat a year) faire redoubler [pupil] ;
2 (repress) opprimer [people] ; réprimer [revolt].
keep in :
keep in [car, cyclist, driver etc] GB tenir sa gauche ; (elsewhere) tenir sa droite ;
keep [sb/sth] in
1 (cause to remain inside) empêcher [qn/qch] de sortir [person, animal] ; garder [dentures, contact lenses] ; they're keeping her in (in hospital) ils la gardent ;
2 (restrain) rentrer [stomach, elbows] ; réprimer [emotions, anger, impatience] ;
3 Sch (cause to stay at school) garder [qn] en retenue, coller [pupil].
keep off :
keep off
1 (stay at a distance) keep off! n'avancez pas! ;
2 (not start) I hope the rain/storm keeps off j'espère qu'il ne pleuvra pas/que l'orage n'éclatera pas ;
keep off [sth]
1 (stay away from) ne pas marcher sur ; ‘Please keep off the grass’ ‘Défense de marcher sur la pelouse’ ;
2 (refrain from) s'abstenir de consommer, éviter [fatty food, alcohol] ; s'abstenir de parler de [subject] ; to keep off cigarettes ne pas fumer ;
keep [sth] off, keep off [sth]
1 (prevent from touching) éloigner [animals, insects] ; this plastic sheet will keep the rain/ dust off cette housse en plastique protège contre la pluie/la poussière ;
2 (continue not to wear) ne pas remettre [shoes, hat] ;
keep sb off [sth] (cause to refrain from) éviter de donner [qch] à qn [food, alcohol] ; empêcher qn de parler de [subject].
keep on :
keep on doing (not stop) continuer à faire ; (do repeatedly) ne pas cesser de faire ; to keep on with sth poursuivre qch ; to keep on about sth ne pas arrêter de parler de qch ; to keep on at sb harceler qn, casser les pieds à qn (to do pour qu'il fasse) ;
keep [sb/sth] on garder [employee, flat, hat, shoes].
keep out :
keep out of [sth]
1 (not enter) ne pas entrer dans [area, house] ; ‘keep out!’ (on notice) ‘défense d'entrer’ ;
2 (avoid being exposed to) rester à l'abri de [sun, rain, danger] ;
3 (avoid getting involved in) ne pas se mêler de [argument] ; keep out of this! ne t'en mêle pas! ; to keep out of sb's way, to keep out of the way of sb (not hinder) ne pas encombrer qn ; (avoid seeing) éviter qn ; try to keep out of trouble! essaie de bien te conduire! ;
keep [sb/sth] out, keep out [sb/sth] (not allow to enter) ne pas laisser entrer [person, animal] ; to keep the rain out empêcher la pluie d'entrer ; I wore an extra pullover to keep out the cold j'ai mis un pull-over de plus pour me protéger du froid ; to keep sb out of sth (not allow to get involved in) ne pas vouloir mêler qn à qch ; (not allow to enter) ne pas laisser entrer qn dans qch ; to keep sb out of trouble empêcher qn de faire des bêtises ; to keep sb/sth out of sb's way faire en sorte que qn/qch ne soit pas sur le chemin de qn.
keep to :
keep to [sth] (stick to) lit ne pas s'écarter de, rester sur [road, path] ; fig respecter, s'en tenir à [timetable, facts, plan] ; respecter [law, rules] ; ‘keep to the left/right’ ‘tenez votre gauche/droite’ ; to keep to one's bed garder le lit ; to keep to one's home rester chez soi ;
keep sb to [sth] (cause to remain on) empêcher qn de s'écarter de [route] ; forcer qn à tenir [promise] ;
keep [sth] to (restrict) limiter [qch] à [weight, number] ; to keep sth to oneself garder qch pour soi [secret , information, opinion] ; he can't keep his hands to himself il a les mains baladeuses ; keep your hands to yourself! bas les pattes !
keep under :
keep [sb] under
1 (dominate) assujettir, soumettre [race, slaves, inhabitants] ;
2 (cause to remain unconscious) maintenir [qn] inconscient.
keep up :
keep up
1 (progress at same speed) (all contexts) [car, runner, person] suivre ; [business rivals, competitors] rester à la hauteur ;
2 (continue) [price] se maintenir ; if the rain keeps up I'm not going s'il continue à pleuvoir je n'y vais pas ;
keep [sth] up, keep up [sth]
1 (cause to remain in position) tenir [trousers] ; ‘keep your hands up!’ (by gunman) ‘gardez les mains en l'air!’ ;
2 (continue) continuer [attack, bombardment, studies] ; entretenir [correspondence, friendship] ; maintenir [membership, tradition] ; garder [pace] ; to keep up the pressure continuer à faire pression (for pour obtenir ; on sur) ; he kept up his German by going to evening classes il a entretenu son allemand en suivant des cours du soir ; to keep up one's strength/spirits garder ses forces/le moral ; keep it up!, keep up the good work! continuez comme ça! ;
keep [sb] up (maintain awake) faire veiller [child, person] ; [noise, illness] empêcher [qn] de dormir ; I hope I'm not keeping you up (politely) j'espère que je ne vous oblige pas à veiller ; (ironically) j'espère que je ne vous empêche pas de dormir.
keep up with :
keep up with [sb/sth]
1 (progress at same speed as) (physically) aller aussi vite que [person, group] ; (mentally) suivre [class, work, lecture] ; [company, country] se maintenir à la hauteur de [competitors] ; Econ [wages, pensions] suivre [prices, inflation, cost of living] ; faire face à [demand] ;
2 (be informed about) suivre [fashion, developments, news] ;
3 (remain in contact with) garder le contact avec [schoolfriends, colleagues]. ⇒ end, pecker.

Big English-French dictionary. 2003.

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